"Gone but Not Forgotten" - African American Cemeteries on the United States Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina
Chester B. DePratter, James B. Legg, and Stanley South
Keywords: African American, Cemeteries, U.S. Marine Corps, Parris Island, South Carolina
Stanley South and Michael J. Stoner
Keywords: Callawassie Island, Tabby, Ruins, Historical Archaeology, South Carolina
Keywords: Excavations, Fortifications, Ninety Six, Ninety Six National Historic Site, South Carolina, Archaeology
Keywords: Excavations, Pottery, John Bartlam, Cream pots, Cain Hoy, MESDA, South Carolina, Archaeology
Michael J. Stoner and Stanley South
The Charles Towne Archaeological Project of 2000/2001 was designed to discover evidence for the remains of the 1670 Charles Towne settlement. The investigation first used a sampling method called shovel testing to locate concentrations of seventeenth-century artifacts in the northernmost portion of the fortified area of the settlement. Once located, the project began to open a larger block of excavation in the vicinity of this concentration. This, the first of two excavation blocks, ultimately included 65 ten-foot squares and the excavation of hundreds of features. This strategy led to the discovery of an earthfast "lodging", which was bordered by a concentration of seventeenth-century artifacts. The second block of excavation extended the original block by 63 ten-foot squares to include the full extent of the seventeenth-century artifact area of concentration. This project not only demonstrated the use of standard methodological techniques used in historical archaeology but also provided a learning environment for community volunteers and an educational opportunity for local schools.
Keywords: Excavations, Charles Towne Landing, Charleston, South Carolina, Archaeology
The Pumpkin Site: 38GR226, Archaeological Investigation of a Prehistoric Middle Woodland Village in Northern Greenville County, South Carolina
This report describes the events that led to an unanticipated archaeological investigation of the Pumpkin site, (38GR226) between November 1994 and December 1995. It details the problems incurred due to a sporadic work schedule, vandalism and ever-changing objectives. Ultimately, good fortune far out-weighed the bad because the data acquired at Pumpkin is among the best ever obtained from a prehistoric Middle Woodland site on the South Carolina Piedmont. During our periodic work episodes, plow disturbed soils were removed from approximately 25 percent of the site to reveal 504 pit and posthole features. Only 37 of the features were excavated, but they rewarded us with data sufficient to determine that a rather intense, but brief, occupation occurred at the site during the Connestee Phase (approximately A.D. 100 – A.D. 600), of the Middle Woodland period. Four remarkably similar radiocarbon dates confirmed the occupation span. In addition to the radiocarbon dates, ethnobotanical data was recovered, providing the earliest date yet obtained for plant domestication on the South Atlantic Slope.
Keywords: Excavations, Middle Woodland Sites, South Carolina Piedmont, Greenville County, South Carolina, Archeology
38BU162U: Excavations for an Irrigation Pipeline on the Santa Elena Site, Parris Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina
Chester B. DePratter, James B. Legg, and Stanley South
Keywords: Excavations, Santa Elena, Parris Island, U.S. Marine Corps, Spanish, French, Beaufort County, South Carolina, Archaeology
A Historic Context Statement for a World War II Era Black Officers' Club at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri
Steven D. Smith
This report provides a historic context statement for Building 2101, a WWII period Black Officers' Club located at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, that is still in active use. The best historical evidence indicates that the building, a standard A-12 temporary classroom building, was designed as the club for black officers stationed at Fort Leonard Wood sometime between June 1942 and January 1943. Later in 1943, it was expanded with an addition. The building was built as part of Fort Leonard Wood's initial construction and used as a Personnel Adjutant's Office for the Engineer Replacement Training Center, 7th Training Group (Colored), until reassigned for the exclusive use of black officers who were denied the use of Fort Leonard Wood's main officers' club. After the addition's construction, a mural was painted above the fireplace located at the gable end of this addition. The artist of the mural was Staff Sergeant Samuel Albert Countee, a professional artist and a rising talent in the world of American black art. In 1945, POWs constructed a stone chimney on the exterior of the building and also constructed elaborate stone walkways and walls for erosion control around the building. A history of the Engineer Replacement Training Center, its black enlisted personnel, and officers, is provided to better understand the building's historical context and value. A separate chapter discusses Samuel Countee and his mural. An appendix discusses the POW stonework at Fort Leonard Wood. Building 2101 was determined eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places in August 1998 by the Missouri State Historic Preservation Office, and stands as a symbol of the African American military experience during WWII--specifically the struggle of black officers of WWII to maintain a leadership presence in an army that was conflicted by their very presence. The black officer in WWII was a dilemma to the U.S. Army--a dilemma to policy makers, to both those who opposed and to those who supported their contribution, and to their race. The question of what to do with the black officer ultimately could not be answered during the war, because the answer was full integration, thereby making the black officer transparent in the officer corps. Until that time came, the black officer stood to remind the nation that a contributing segment of its population was being set aside from full membership. Although seemingly unpretentious in appearance, the building stands as a reminder of a period when the nation was vigorously challenging the continued existence of two racially intolerant governments (Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan), but was at the same time struggling with inequality at home. The building also contains a National Register eligible rare surviving example of WWII soldier art by an established black artist, and is surrounded by rare German POW stonework.
Keywords: Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, World War II, Officers' clubs, African American, Military, Army, POWs, Stonework, Historic Buildings
"Where the Wappetaw Independent Congregational Church Stood...", Archaeological Testing at 38CH1682, Charleston County, SC
Christopher Ohm Clement and Ramona M. Grunden
This report presents the results of limited archaeological testing at Wappetaw Independent Church (38CHI682), Charleston County, South Carolina. Wappetaw was founded by a group of 51 Congregationalist emigrants from New England, who arrived in the Carolinas around 1696. The primary focus of documentary research for this project was the earliest years of settlement; settlement patterning and motivations for immigration are examined. Archaeologically, remains of the last church to occupy the site (ca. 1783-1897) were securely identified, and a tentative reconstruction of the foundation of this structure is provided. Evidence of earlier structures was also encountered, and indicates that at least one earlier church stood on the property. Archaeological evidence confirms documentary data that this earlier church was occupied by British forces during the American Revolution, and tends to confirm that it was burned at the time of their departure.
Keywords: Excavations, Churches, Wando Neck, Charleston County, South Carolina, Archeology
A Memoir of the Archaeological Excavation of Fort Prince George, Pickens County, South Carolina Along with Pertinent Historical Documentation
Marshall W. Williams
Keywords: Excavations, Duke Power Company, Fort Prince George, Pickens County, South Carolina, Archeology
South Carolina's Underwater Archaeology Public Education Program and International Outreach Initiatives
Keywords: Excavations, Training, South Carolina Underwater Antiquities Act, Sport Diver Archaeology Management Program, South Carolina, Archeology
Strawberry Ferry (38K1723) and Childsbury Towne (38K1750): A Socio-Economic Enterprise on the Western Branch of the Cooper River, St. John's Parish, Berkeley County, South Carolina
William B. Barr
Frontier expansion in British colonial South Carolina was predicated upon the exploitation of diverse indigenous economic resources and staple crop production. The successful exportation of these inland commodities to world markets depended upon . access to a reliable bulk transportation system of interior rivers and roads. Commercial centers, in the form of centrally located settlements, were established for the transshipment of these products and the importation of finished goods. Socially, these settlements provided many needs for an area's population. Strawberry Ferry and Childsbury Towne - - constructed, established, and supported by elite residents along the western branch of the Cooper River - - were designed to take advantage of socioeconomic opportunities vested in the control of two major arteries of trade and commerce along the Carolina frontier.
Keywords: Strawberry Ferry, Childsbury Towne, Berkeley County, Cooper River, South Carolina, Archeology
Stanley South and Chester B. DePratter
This report describes results of the excavation of a 40 by 70 foot block (38BU162N) in the Spanish colonial town of Santa Elena.
Keywords: Excavations, Parris Island, Spanish, French, Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, Archaeology
The Ingram Vessel 38CT204: Intensive Survey & Excavation of an Upland Rivercraft at Cheraw, South Carolina
Christopher F. Amer, Suzanne C. Linder, Mark M. Newell, and William B. Barr
In 1993 and 1994 the Underwater Archaeology Division of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology conducted an intensive survey of the remains of a small, wooden hulled craft in the Great Pee Dee River near Cheraw, South Carolina. The project was sponsored in part by the Cheraw Historical Society and partially funded by a grant from the South Carolina Humanities Council. The Ingram Vessel (38CT204), named after its discoverer Miller Ingram, lay overturned and largely buried beneath the river sediments and protected by a large mushroom-shaped rock just upstream of the site. The site was partially excavated and the hull remains mapped in situ. The investigation revealed a shallow draught, keeled vessel, built entirely of Southern Yellow Pine. The site is tentatively dated to the late 18th-early 19th century. Overall dimensions are estimated to have been approximately 15.5m (50ft, l0 in) in length, with a maximum beam of 4.6m (15ft, lin). This report details the research on the site and places the vessel within a regional maritime historical context. The vessel is, to date, the only ship-built hull excavated in an uplands context near the head of navigation of a South Carolina river.
Keywords: Excavations, Vessels, Great Pee Dee River, Cheraw Historical Society, Cheraw, South Carolina, Archeology
Chester B. DePratter and Stanley South
This report presents the results of archaeological research carried out on Parris Island, South Carolina, to expand our knowledge of occupation by Spaniards in the sixteenth century.
Keywords: Excavations, Parris Island, Spanish, French, Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, Archaeology
Keywords: John Bartlam, Creamware, Pottery, Cain Hoy, South Carolina, Archaeology
The Malcolm Boat (38CH803): Discovery, Stabilization, Excavation, and Preservation of an Historic Sea Going Small Craft in the Ashley River, Charleston County, South Carolina
Christopher F. Amer, William B. Barr, David V. Beard, Elizabeth L. Collins, Lynn B. Harris, William R. Judd, Carl Naylor, and Mark M. Newell
The following report details the results of an investigation of the remains of a small historic sailing craft, The Malcolm Boat (38CH803), discovered in a mud bank of the Ashley River in 1985. The investigation, conducted in June of 1992, with partial funding support from the South Carolina Department of Archives and History, revealed that the vessel was a small ocean-going hull dating to the last quarter of the eighteenth century and the first quarter of the nineteenth. The analysis presented discusses the vessel's age, method of construction and function as a coastal or possibly inter-islander trader, and places the vessel within a regional maritime historical context. Historical context is provided in the form of the background history of shipbuilding in South Carolina and a preliminary typology of local small craft. Methods of site stabilization for intertidal zone sites are discussed with recommendations for future work in this new area of investigation in the state.
Keywords: Excavations, Ashley River, Sloops, Shipbuilding, Charleston County, South Carolina, Archeology
Lynn Harris, Jimmy Moss, and Carl Naylor
Local divers, under the direction Mr. Jimmy Moss from Abbeville, conducted a preliminary archaeological and historical survey the west branch of the Cooper River. Guidance and advice was provided by the Sport Diver Archaeology Management Program (SDAMP) of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology (SCIAA). The Cooper River is one of the most popular recreational diving areas in the state. The objectives of this project were two-fold. First, to involve divers in an avocational archaeology project with the idea of promoting diver education. Second, to systematically locate and assess the underwater cultural resources in this historically significant two mile stretch of river. These sites included prehistoric and historic artifact scatters, a dock structure, shipwrecks and a barge. The artifact scatters were sampled and initial documentation was undertaken on the structural remains. Participating divers were involved in a range of tasks which included historical research, maintaining field notebooks, plotting sites on topography maps, cataloging and labeling artifacts, and compiling the final report. Reviews of unpublished literature about past archaeological surveys and state-sanctioned salvage projects were undertaken by SCIAA staff in an attempt to determine the extent of the usefulness of these records. This background study also instigated a closer examination of South Carolina's early site file system and identified various management problems which could be pertinent for future work on underwater sites. Based on the formative results of this survey, some ideas were gleaned about underwater site distribution and fluvial processes in relation to riverine geomorphology and terrestrial topographic features. An analysis of the artifact collection recovered by the sport divers reflects distinctive assemblage components relating to plantation sites on the nearby river banks. This groundbreaking project, conducted and directed by sport divers, provided an ideal opportunity to combine public outreach and education with research - a important goal of SCIAA's Sport Diver Archaeology Management Program.
Keywords: Excavations, Sport divers, Cooper River, South Carolina, Archeology
The purpose of this multi-year project is to conduct historical and archaeological research in the waterfront area of the three Georgetown area plantation sites – Richmond Hill, Laurel Hill and Wachesaw. This season of work was devoted to recording a large barge located in proximity to Laurel Hill. The primary goal was to document architectural features which would reflect the carpentry techniques used by the builders and the possible function of the vessel. Limited surface artifact sampling was conducted to provide some insights into activities and date ranges associated with the local riverine area. This project was also intended as an opportunity for the Sport Diver Archaeology Management Program to teach volunteer sport divers about concepts in underwater archaeology, barge construction and documentation methodology. Divers from around the state assisted in all aspects of the project which ranged from simple surveying tasks, keeping field log books, search techniques, excavation, hull documentation, artistic renderings of the site and hull components, artifact cataloging and assistance with production of the final report. An equally important goal was to establish a good working relationship with the sport diver community which could be of great future value to the state.
Keywords: Excavations, Sport Diver Archaeology Management Program, Barges, Underwater archaeology, Waccamaw River, Plantations, Georgetown County, South Carolina, Archeology
Stanley South and Carl Steen
Keywords: Excavations, Renovations, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, Archeology
Keith M. Derting, Sharon L. Pekrul, and Charles J. Reinhart
This volume represents the compilation of the first comprehensive bibliography of South Carolina archaeological sources.
Keywords: South Carolina, Archaeology
Acquiring the Past for the Future: The South Carolina Heritage Trust Statewide Assessment of Cultural Sites
Christopher Judge and Steven D. Smith
The South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology received a grant from the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department and the South Carolina Department of Archives and History to conduct a statewide assessment of the cultural resources of the state. This report details the results of this one-year study to establish a representative sample of the archaeological and historical resources of the state of South Carolina, to be used by the South Carolina Heritage Trust as a planning tool for the possible acquisition of such sites as Heritage Preserves. A list of the 100 most "Critically Significant" sites and properties is presented along with the techniques and criteria utilized to establish a 100 site inventory. This list is not carved in stone, rather it reflects the archaeological community's current knowledge of the state's resources. In the future this list will evolve and change; it is flexible. This list is not meant to be anything but a planning tool for the Heritage Trust.
Keywords: South Carolina Heritage Trust, Cultural resources, Excavations, South Carolina, Archaeology
Chester B. DePratter and Stanley South
Keywords: Excavations, Parris Island, Spanish, French, Charlesfort, Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, Archaeology
Late Archaic-Early Woodland Period Shell Rings of the Southeastern United States Coast: A Bibliographic Introduction
David R. Lawrence and Hilda L. Wrightson
Keywords: Excavations, Bibliography, Kitchens, Middens, Woodland culture, Coastal archaeology, Indians of North America, Southern states, Archeology
"The Best Ever Occupied...": Archaeological Investigations of a Civil War Encampment on Folly Island, South Carolina
James B. Legg and Steven D. Smith
In May of 1987, the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology was informed that human remains were being unearthed by road construction in a private residential development on Folly Island, South Carolina. This information led to a two year investigation of the 1863 winter camp of the Federal Army, used during its siege of Charleston. During the investigations a black military cemetery was salvaged (site 38CH920), and three areas of the Federal camp were examined as part of a data recovery project, and a later research effort (sites 38CH964, 38CH965, 38CH966). All of the sites were recommended as eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This report presents the results of all archaeological and historical investigations of the winter camp conducted from May 1987 to May 1989. The cemetery contained the remains of at least 19 black soldiers, most likely from the 55th Massachusetts, 1st North Carolina Colored Infantry, and the 2nd U.S. Colored Infantry. The material culture from the camp sites represented refuse of several possible Federal military units, deposited in latrines, wells, and trash pits. In addition to the archaeological analysis, a detailed historical overview is presented.
Keywords: Excavations, Cemeteries, Civil War, Union army, African Americans, Folly Island, South Carolina, Archeology
Initiated in 1969, the Research Manuscript Series consists of technical monographs summarizing archaeological projects in South Carolina conducted by SCIAA personnel and collaborators. Many of these reports describe the results of excavations, but artifact analyses and ethnohistorical research are represented as well.
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