Document Type



Although counterproductivity (e.g., shirking responsibilities or lying to supervisors) is a focal topic for many industrial/organizational psychologists, the broader social psychology literature has historically focused on more serious and uncommon forms of individual-level deviance, often in terms of its relation to criminal activity or psychopathology. Additionally, sociologists study intentional harmful behaviors that individuals engage in but use the term deviance in lieu of counterproductivity. Regarding students, there has been some work that addresses the more common phenomenon of counterproductivity at school, such as lying to teachers and cheating on tests. Nevertheless, each of these domains, in criminal justice, social psychology, clinical psychology, sociology, etc. has largely taken a siloed approach with little cross-pollination. This paper adds to the sparse literature on student counterproductivity by identifying important contemporary forms of counterproductive student behavior (CSB) and developing a scale. Results indicated that CSB is multidimensional and reflective of four forms: cheating, dishonesty, lack of focus/participation, and poor quality work. The implications of such findings include a more psychometrically-sound instrument to assess student counterproductivity, thereby aiding scientists, but also a more nuanced understanding of how potential interventions could be crafted to help students engage in adaptive problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies.