Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Child; Humans; Cross-Sectional Studies; Sports (education); Schools; Caregivers; Surveys and Questionnaires; Patient-Centered Care


Family-centered care (FCC) includes collaboration between families and healthcare providers, the creation of flexible policies, and the family taking an active role in the delivery of care. Secondary school athletic trainers provide care for underage patients in school-based health systems, making them responsible for maintaining communication with parents, guardians, and/or caregivers. This cross-sectional survey investigated the extent to which athletic trainers (n = 205) include aspects of FCC in their daily secondary school clinical practice (current practices = CP) and whether they believe that aspect of care is necessary for FCC to be provided in athletic training (perceived necessary = PN) in their everyday practice using the Family-Centered Care Questionnaire-Revised tool. The total mean score for the CP scale (mean = 26.83 ± 4.36) was significantly lower ( ≤ 0.01) than the PN scale (mean = 35.33 ± 4.17). All FCC subscales compared between CP and PN were significantly different ( ≤ 0.01), with each being of higher importance than CP in athletic training. Data analysis revealed four themes related to enhancing FCC in secondary schools: limited education and resources, staffing and space concerns, non-technical skills, and social determinants of health. Attention should be placed on developing resources and interventions for secondary school athletic trainers to collaboratively work with children and their support systems.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

APA Citation

Winkelmann, Z. K., Uriegas, N. A., Mensch, J. M., Montgomery, C. E., & Torres-McGehee, T. M. (2023). Practices and perceptions of family-centered care: A cross-sectional survey of secondary school athletic trainers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(6), 4942.