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Despite ongoing efforts to improve childhood vaccination coverage, including in hard-to-reach and hard-to-vaccinate communities, many children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remain unvaccinated. Considering recent goals set by the Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030), including reducing the number of zero-dose children by half, research that goes beyond coverage to identify populations and groups at greater risk of being unvaccinated is urgently needed. This is a pooled cross-sectional study of individual- and country-level data obtained from Demographic and Health Surveys Program and two open data repositories. The sample includes 43,131 children aged 12–59 months sampled between 2010 and 2020 in 33 SSA countries. Associations of zero-dose status with individual and contextual factors were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. 16.5% of children had not received any vaccines. Individual level factors associated lower odds of zero-dose status included mother’s primary school or high school education, employment, use of antenatal care services and household wealth. Compared to children in countries with lower GDP, children in countries with relatively high GDP had nearly four times greater odds of being unvaccinated. Both individual and contextual factors are correlated with zero-dose status in SSA. Our results can inform efforts to identify and reach children who have not received any vaccines.

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APA Citation

Ozigbu, C., Olatosi, B., Li, Z., Hardin, J., & Hair, N. (2022). Correlates of Zero-Dose Vaccination Status among Children Aged 12–59 Months in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multilevel Analysis of Individual and Contextual Factors. Vaccines, 10(7), 1052.


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