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Background: Although a psychiatric history might be an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection and mortality, no studies have systematically investigated how different clusters of pre-existing mental disorders may affect COVID-19 clinical outcomes or showed how the coexistence of mental disorder clusters is related to COVID-19 clinical outcomes.

Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, a total of 476,775 adult patients with lab-confirmed and probable COVID-19 between March 06, 2020 and April 14, 2021 in South Carolina, United States were included in the current study. The electronic health record data of COVID-19 patients were linked to all payer-based claims data through the SC Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office. Pre-existing mental disorder diagnoses from Jan 2, 2019 to Jan 14, 2021 were extracted from the patients' healthcare utilization data via ICD-10 codes.

Results: There is an elevated risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death among participants with pre-existing mental disorders adjusting for key socio-demographic and comorbidity covariates. Co-occurrence of any two clusters was positively associated with COVID-19-related hospitalization and death. The odds ratio of being hospitalized was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.151, 1.383) for patients with internalizing and externalizing disorders, 1.65 (95% CI: 1.298, 2.092) for internalizing and thought disorders, 1.76 (95% CI: 1.217, 2.542) for externalizing and thought disorders, and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.274, 2.118) for three clusters of mental disorders.

Conclusions: Pre-existing internalizing disorders and thought disorders are positively related to COVID-19 hospitalization and death. Co-occurrence of any two clusters of mental disorders have elevated risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death compared to those with a single cluster.

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APA Citation

Qiao, S., Zhang, J., Chen, S., Olatosi, B., Hardeman, S., & Narasimhan, M. et al. (2022). How Different Pre-existing Mental Disorders and Their Co-occurrence Affects COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes? A Real-World Data Study in the Southern United States. Frontiers In Public Health, 10.