Document Type



Background: Hair concentrations of antiretrovirals are an innovative and non-invasive method for measuring cumulative antiretroviral exposure and assessing long-term antiretroviral adherence. This study aimed to examine hair concentrations of antiretrovirals in relation to virologic outcomes among PLHIV in Guangxi, China.
Methods: Cross-sectional data of hair concentrations of antiretrovirals and HIV viral load were collected from 215 PLHIV in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association of hair concentrations of antiretrovirals with virologic outcomes.
Results: Of the 215 participants, 215, 67, and 163 PLHIV are receiving lamivudine, zidovudine, and efavirenz, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that hair concentrations of lamivudine [odds ratio = 16.52, 95% CI 2.51– 108.60, p = 0.004] and efavirenz [odds ratio = 14.26, 95% CI 1.18– 172.01, p = 0.036], but not zidovudine [odds ratio = 1.77, 95% CI 0.06– 56.14, p = 0.747], were the strongest independent predictor of virologic suppression when controlling for sociodemographic and other HIV-related characteristics.
Conclusion: Hair concentrations of lamivudine and efavirenz were the strongest independent predictor of virologic suppression among Chinese PLHIV. Hair analysis of antiretrovirals may provide a non-invasive, cost-effective tool that predicts virologic suppression among PLHIV in China.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

APA Citation

Zhang, Q., Li, X., Qiao, S., Liu, S., Shen, Z., & Zhou, Y. (2021). Association of Hair Concentrations of Antiretrovirals with Virologic Outcomes Among People Living with HIV in Guangxi, China. Patient Preference And Adherence,15, 853-861.


© 2021 Zhang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. The full terms of the License are available at The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.