Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Breast Neoplasms (pathology, surgery); Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast (surgery); Female; Hormones; Humans; Mastectomy, Segmental; Neoplasm Staging


BACKGROUND: Time to surgery (TTS) has been suggested to have an association with mortality in early-stage breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the association between TTS and preoperative disease progression in tumor size or nodal status among women diagnosed with clinical T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer. METHODS: Women diagnosed with clinical T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery as their first definitive treatment between 2010 and 2016 (n = 90,405) were analyzed using the National Cancer Database. Separate multivariable logistic regression models for hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HR-negative patients, adjusted for clinical and demographic variables, were used to assess the relationship between TTS and upstaging of tumor size (T-upstaging) or nodal status (N-upstaging). RESULTS: T-upstaging occurred in 6.76% of HR-positive patients and 11.00% of HR-negative patients, while N-upstaging occurred in 12.69% and 10.75% of HR-positive and HR-negative patients, respectively. Among HR-positive patients, odds of T-upstaging were higher for 61-90 days TTS (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.34) and ≥91 days TTS (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.84) compared with ≤30 days TTS, and odds of N- upstaging were higher for ≥91 days TTS (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62). No association between TTS and either T- or N-upstaging was found among HR-negative patients. Other clinical and demographic variables, including grade, tumor location, and race/ethnicity, were associated with both T- and N-upstaging. CONCLUSION: TTS ≥61 and ≥91 days was a significant predictor of T- and N-upstaging, respectively, in HR-positive patients; however, TTS was not associated with upstaging in HR-negative breast cancer. Delays in surgery may contribute to measurable disease progression in T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

APA Citation

Hills, N., Leslie, M., Davis, R., Crowell, M., Kameyama, H., & Rui, H. et al. (2021). Prolonged Time from Diagnosis to Breast-Conserving Surgery is Associated with Upstaging in Hormone Receptor-Positive Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma. Annals Of Surgical Oncology, 28(11), 5895-5905.