Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Breast Neoplasms (pathology, surgery); Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast (surgery); Female; Hormones; Humans; Mastectomy, Segmental; Neoplasm Staging


BACKGROUND: Time to surgery (TTS) has been suggested to have an association with mortality in early-stage breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the association between TTS and preoperative disease progression in tumor size or nodal status among women diagnosed with clinical T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer. METHODS: Women diagnosed with clinical T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery as their first definitive treatment between 2010 and 2016 (n = 90,405) were analyzed using the National Cancer Database. Separate multivariable logistic regression models for hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HR-negative patients, adjusted for clinical and demographic variables, were used to assess the relationship between TTS and upstaging of tumor size (T-upstaging) or nodal status (N-upstaging). RESULTS: T-upstaging occurred in 6.76% of HR-positive patients and 11.00% of HR-negative patients, while N-upstaging occurred in 12.69% and 10.75% of HR-positive and HR-negative patients, respectively. Among HR-positive patients, odds of T-upstaging were higher for 61-90 days TTS (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.34) and ≥91 days TTS (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.84) compared with ≤30 days TTS, and odds of N- upstaging were higher for ≥91 days TTS (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62). No association between TTS and either T- or N-upstaging was found among HR-negative patients. Other clinical and demographic variables, including grade, tumor location, and race/ethnicity, were associated with both T- and N-upstaging. CONCLUSION: TTS ≥61 and ≥91 days was a significant predictor of T- and N-upstaging, respectively, in HR-positive patients; however, TTS was not associated with upstaging in HR-negative breast cancer. Delays in surgery may contribute to measurable disease progression in T1N0M0 ductal breast cancer.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


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APA Citation

Hills, N., Leslie, M., Davis, R., Crowell, M., Kameyama, H., & Rui, H. et al. (2021). Prolonged Time from Diagnosis to Breast-Conserving Surgery is Associated with Upstaging in Hormone Receptor-Positive Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma. Annals Of Surgical Oncology, 28(11), 5895-5905.