Edward Frongillo:

Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Adolescent; Adult; Bangladesh; Eating; Feeding Behavior; Female; Humans; Micronutrients (administration & dosage); Nutrition Assessment; Nutritional Requirements; Nutritional Status; Pregnancy; Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Young Adult


Background: The Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) indicator based on a 10-food group women dietary diversity score (WDDS-10) has been validated to assess dietary quality in nonpregnant women. Little is known about its applicability in pregnant women, and specifically pregnant adolescent girls with higher nutrient requirements. Objectives: This study aimed to 1) compare the adequacy of micronutrient intakes between pregnant adolescent girls and women, 2) examine the performance of WDDS-10 in predicting the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) of 11 micronutrients, and 3) assess how well the MDD-W cutoff of 5 groups performed in pregnant adolescent girls and women. Methods: We used data from a 2015 household survey in Bangladesh (n = 600). Nutrient intakes were estimated with a multiple-pass 24-h recall and WDDS-10 was assessed through the use of a list-based method. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for geographical clustering assessed the association between WDDS-10 and MPA. Sensitivity and specificity analysis assessed the accuracy of MDD-W in correctly classifying individuals into high (MPA >0.6) or low MPA. Results: Dietary intakes of pregnant adolescent girls and women were similar in energy intake, WDDS-10 (5.1 ± 1.4), MPA (0.40 ± 0.12), and micronutrient intakes. Probabilities of adequacy were ∼0.30 for riboflavin, vitamin B-12, calcium, and zinc; 0.12-0.15 for folate; 0.16-0.19 for vitamin A; and extremely low for iron at 0.01. The WDDS-10 was significantly associated with MPA in both groups and predicted MPA equally well at population level (SD of residuals 0.11 for both). Use of the 5-food groups cutoff for MDD-W to classify individuals' diets into MPA >0.6, however, resulted in a low correct classification (∼40%). A cutoff of 6 food groups markedly improved correct classification. Conclusions: The WDDS-10 predicted MPA equally well for pregnant adolescent girls and women at population level. The MDD-W indicator performed poorly in classifying individuals with MPA >0.6.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


© 2018 American Society for Nutrition. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

APA Citation

Nguyen, P., Huybregts, L., Sanghvi, T., Tran, L., Frongillo, E., Menon, P., & Ruel, M. (2018). Dietary Diversity Predicts the Adequacy of Micronutrient Intake in Pregnant Adolescent Girls and Women in Bangladesh, but Use of the 5-Group Cutoff Poorly Identifies Individuals with Inadequate Intake. The Journal Of Nutrition, 148(5), 790-797.