Edward Frongillo:

Document Type




In this study, socio-economic factors associated with Afghan refugee households' food insecurity, anxiety and uncertainty, insufficient quality and food intake were determined.


Household Food Insecurity Assess Scale measurement was applied to assess food insecurity, anxiety and uncertainty, insufficient quality and insufficient food intake. Descriptive analysis and multivariable regression models were used to determine the associated factors.


The study was carried out in urban areas of Tehran province in Iran. PARTICIPANTS: To collect data, interviews were conducted among 317 Afghan households. The questionnaire was administered via face-to-face interviews to either the breadwinner of the selected households or a member who could respond on behalf of the household.


About 11·3 % of Afghan households who resettled in Tehran province were food secure, while 11·7 % were marginally, 40·7 % moderately and 36·3 % severely food insecure. Economic and financial factors were inversely and significantly associated with food insecurity. Employment, income, distance from the central market and personal saving were inversely associated with food insecurity, while other determinants, including the length of living time in Tehran, house type and the number of male and female children, had a direct association with food insecurity.


The associations of socio-economic factors with three categories of food insecurity differed. Elimination of occupation bans that the Iranian government imposes on refugees provides simple access to financial supports like long-term loans, and opening a bank account for refugees will benefit both Iranians and refugees.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

APA Citation

Pakravan-Charvadeh, M., Vatanparast, H., Frongillo, E., Khakpour, M., & Flora, C. (2021). The assessment of an extended set of socio-economic determinants to explain anxiety and uncertainty, insufficient quality and food intake of Afghan refugees. Public Health Nutrition, 1-11.