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In the aftermath of the Cold War, Africans redoubled their efforts to fight impunity and violations of human rights. This renewed effort, however, was part of the struggle that started during the colonial period by Africans to free themselves from European domination and exploitation. Unfortunately, most post-independence African States failed to fully transform the critical domains and provide themselves with institutional arrangements capable of adequately constraining their civil servants and political elites. As a consequence, these countries came to be pervaded by high levels of government impunity, particularly the violation of human rights. During the last several decades, however, grassroots efforts to fight human rights abuses, presidential abuse of power, and government impunity, have increased throughout most African countries. These domestic efforts, coupled with those of the international community, have made it much more difficult for Africa’s political elites, including presidents, to abuse their powers and engage in behaviors that violate the rights of their fellow citizens. Nevertheless, Africans still have a long way to go in order to eliminate government impunity and create an environment in which human rights are fully recognized and protected. Africans must put in place institutional and legal structures that effectively minimize the chances that government officials will engage in activities that violate human rights and threaten peace and security. In doing so, Africans can benefit significantly from international law, particularly international human rights law.