Document Type



Open educational resources (OER) are a cost-effective alternative to traditional textbooks for K-12 teachers to provide differentiated instruction at a much lower cost. However, teachers have to overcome barriers to implement OER in their classrooms, especially if cultural and economic factors are considered. To help each teacher overcome individual barriers, a person-centered approach to understand teachers’ barriers of implementing OER is needed yet absent. This research thus filled the gap by conducting a latent class analysis of teachers’ profiles in terms of their barriers in using OER. The findings identified three types of teacher profiles and revealed how different profiles impact the effectiveness of OER in teaching and learning. This study provides significant implications for scholars and practitioners helping teachers overcome barriers in implementing OER in K-12 settings.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.

APA Citation

Tang, H., & Bao, Y. (2021). Latent class analysis of K-12 teachers’ barriers to implementing OER. Distance Education, 42(4), 582–598.