Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Chemical Engineering


A mathematical model of a starved lead-acid cell has been developed to study the dynamic behavior of the cell during discharge. Concentrated binary electrolyte theory and a volume-averaging technique were used to model the transport of electrolyte. The model can be used to predict cell voltage and profile of: acid concentration, overpotential, porosity, reaction rate, and electrode capacity, as functions of time. The effects of separator thickness and its porosity were examined with respect to cold-cranking amperage and reserve capacity of the battery. The separator was found to be a significant factor governing performance.