A mathematical model of a starved lead-acid cell has been developed to study the dynamic behavior of the cell during discharge. Concentrated binary electrolyte theory and a volume-averaging technique were used to model the transport of electrolyte. The model can be used to predict cell voltage and profile of: acid concentration, overpotential, porosity, reaction rate, and electrode capacity, as functions of time. The effects of separator thickness and its porosity were examined with respect to cold-cranking amperage and reserve capacity of the battery. The separator was found to be a significant factor governing performance.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 1990, pages 2998-3004.
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