Solution Equilibrium Characteristics of Electroless Copper Deposition on Thermally-Activated Palladium-Catalysed Polyimide Substrates
Solution equilibrium characteristics of two electroless copper baths containing EDTA and tartrate as the complexing agents were studied as functions of pH. Equilibrium diagrams were constructed for both Cu-tartrate and Cu-EDTA systems. It was determined that copper is chiefly complexed as Cu2L2 in acidic conditions and as Cu(OH)2L2−4 in alkaline conditions in the tartrate bath, and as CuA−2 in the EDTA bath, where L and A are the complexing tartrate and EDTA ligands, respectively. Electroless copper deposition rates were studied from a tartrate bath on thermally activated palladium-catalysed polyimide substrates as functions of copper and formaldehyde concentrations, and pH.
Published in Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Volume 28, Issue 7, 1998, pages 737-743.
Copyright Springer, 1998.
Ramasubramanian, M., Popov, B. N., White, R. E., & Chen, K. S. (1 July 1998). Solution Equilibrium Characteristics of Electroless Copper Deposition on Thermally-Activated Palladium-Catalysed Polyimide Substrates. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 28 (7), 737 – 743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1003202413045