Thermal films on titanium surfaces were formed by heating titanium samples in air at atmospheric pressure. The optical constants, thickness, and structure of the formed films at various temperatures and times of heating were investigated by ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy. The complex index of refraction and the thickness of generated films were determined by comparing the experimental loci and obtained by ellipsometric measurements with theoretical computed vs. curves. It was found that the thickness in homogeneity and porosity of formed films increase with increasing temperature and the duration of the thermal treatment. Beyond a certain critical temperature, the appearance of some Raman bands and changes in their intensities indicated that the film transformed from amorphous to microcrystalline and crystalline structure.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 1997, pages 2318-2323.
© The Electrochemical Society, Inc. 1997. All rights reserved. Except as provided under U.S. copyright law, this work may not be reproduced, resold, distributed, or modified without the express permission of The Electrochemical Society (ECS). The archival version of this work was published in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society.
Publisher's link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.1837811