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The increasing demand of emerging technologies for high energy density electrochemical storage has led many researchers to look for alternative anode materials to graphite. The most promising conversion and alloying materials do not yet possess acceptable cycle life or rate capability. In this work, we use tin oxide, SnO2, as a representative anode material to explore the influence of graphene incorporation and In-doping to increase the electronic conductivity and concomitantly improve capacity retention and cycle life. It was found that the incorporation of In into SnO2 reduces the charge transfer resistance during cycling, prolonging life. It is also hypothesized that the increased conductivity allows the tin oxide conversion and alloying reactions to both be reversible, leading to very high capacity near 1200 mAh/g. Finally, the electrodes show excellent rate capability with a capacity of over 200 mAh/g at 10C.


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Liu, Y., Palmieri, A., He, J., Meng, Y., Beauregard, N., Suib, S., & Mustain, W. (2016). Highly Conductive In-SnO2/RGO Nano-Heterostructures with Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Performance. Scientific Reports, 6(25860), 1-8. doi: 10.1038/srep25860