Electrocatalytic Activity and Stability of Pt clusters on State-of-the-Art Supports: A Review

Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Chemical Engineering


Instability of supported Pt clusters due to limited bonding with conventional carbon supports and carbon dissolution leads to significant cathode performance losses with time, impeding the development of commercial proton exchange membrane fuel cells. One approach that has recently been gaining momentum is the use of the electrocatalyst support to enhance both the stability and activity of Pt clusters for the oxygen reduction reaction. This review article focuses on four support types: advanced carbons, conductive ceramics, metallic underlayers for Pt monolayer catalysts, and the 3M crystalline organic whiskers. Advantages and disadvantages of each support are summarized and promising future directions for research in this area are discussed.