Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Chemical Physics


Similarity of equations of motion for the classical and quantum trajectories is used to introduce afriction term dependent on the wavefunction phase into the time-dependent Schrödingerequation. The term describes irreversible energy loss by the quantum system. The force offriction is proportional to the velocity of a quantum trajectory. The resulting Schrödinger equationis nonlinear, conserves wavefunction normalization, and evolves an arbitrary wavefunction into the ground state of the system (of appropriate symmetry if applicable). Decrease in energy is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the quantum trajectory ensemble. Dynamics in the high friction regime is suitable for simple models of reactions proceeding with energy transfer from the system to the environment. Examples of dynamics are given for single and symmetric and asymmetric double well potentials.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

APA Citation

Garashchuk, S., Dixit, V., Gu, B., & Mazzuca, J. (2013). The Schrödinger Equation with Friction from the Quantum Trajectory Perspective. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 138(5), 054107.