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The multiple scattering effects present in grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) data and interference between them are addressed theoretically as well as experimentally with measurement of a series of patterns at different incident angles, referred to as `incident-angle-resolved GISAXS' (IAR-GISAXS). X-ray reflectivity (XR), GISAXS and IAR-GISAXS of virus particles on Si-substrate supported-polystyrene films have been measured and all the data have been analyzed with appropriate formalisms. It was found that under certain conditions it is possible to extract the correct structural features of the materials from the GISAXS/IAR-GISAXS data using the kinematic SAXS formalisms, without the need to use the distorted-wave Born approximation. Furthermore, the Kiessig fringes in GISAXS enable the measurement of the average distance between the particle and the substrate, similar to the measurement of film thickness using the fringes in the XR data. It is believed that the methods developed here will expand the application of GISAXS as they enable the application of model-independent and kinematic SAXS theories to nanostructured two-dimensional ordered films.

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Lee, B., Lo, C.-T., Thiyagarajan, P., Lee, D., Niu, Z., & Wang, Q. (2007). Structural Characterization Using the Multiple Scattering Effects in Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 41(1), 134–142.

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