The Energy-conserving Dynamics of Quantum-classical Systems Based on Quantum Trajectories

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The method, described in the paper, incorporates ideas of the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics into a trajectory approach designed for systems comprised of light (quantum) and heavy (nearly classical) particles. The goal is to treat all degrees of freedom on the same footing but, for practical reasons, to include the quantum-mechanical effects into dynamics for just the light particles. The total wavefunction, taken as a product of slow and fast components representing the heavy and light particles respectively is represented in terms of trajectories. The fast component depends on the trajectory-guided configurations of the heavy particles. The initial conditions for the trajectories are defined by the full-dimensional initial wavefunction according to Bohm's prescription of associating the trajectory momentum with the gradient of the wavefunction phase. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved for the quantum degrees of freedom using an ensemble of the quantum trajectories (or other time-propagation method) for each guiding trajectory of the classical subspace. Neglect of the quantum force acting on the heavy particles allows decoupling of the quantum calculations associated with different guiding trajectories. The approach allows reconstruction of the full-dimensional wavefunction and conserves the total wavefunction energy as illustrated for the vibrationally non-adiabatic model.