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In a series of three experiments, we tested for effects of species pools, resource stress, and species interactions on four aspects of community structure: species richness, evenness, species composition, and functional group composition. We also examined whether the impacts of species interactions on the community varied with resource availability or species pool. Communities of sand dune annuals grew from seed bank samples collected from two sites in three different years, so that the species pool differed at two levels: the source site and the year of seed bank collection. Communities experienced one of three irrigation treatments and a range of sowing densities, which varied resource supply (stress) and the potential for species interactions, respectively. Species richness and evenness were most affected by local factors: higher densities and lower water availability decreased species diversity. In contrast, species composition was influenced most by the species pool. Functional group composition had an intermediate response, and was affected by both species pools and local filters. Resource stress and species interactions strongly filtered species from the community, but the identity of species remaining was variable. Furthermore, the magnitude of species interaction effects on richness and evenness varied with species pools. Thus, the outcome of species sorting among biotic and abiotic environments was dependent on the pool of available species. Contrary to predictions from theory, the effects of species interactions on the community did not vary consistently with resource levels.