Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Adult; Dehydration (prevention & control); Drinking; Drinking Behavior; Electrolytes (administration & dosage); Hockey (physiology); Humans; Male; Sodium (urine); Sweat (chemistry); Water-Electrolyte Balance; Young Adult


BACKGROUND: Despite exercising in cool environments, ice hockey players exhibit several dehydration risk factors. Individualized fluid plans (IFPs) are designed to mitigate dehydration by matching an individual's sweat loss in order to optimize physiological systems and performance. METHODS: A randomized control trial was used to examine IFP versus ad libitum fluid ingestion on hydration in 11 male minor professional ice hockey players (mean age = 24.4 ± 2.6 years, height = 183.0 ± 4.6 cm, weight = 92.9 ± 7.8 kg). Following baseline measures over 2 practices, participants were randomly assigned to either control (CON) or intervention (INT) for 10 additional practices. CON participants were provided water and/or carbohydrate electrolyte beverage to drink ad libitum. INT participants were instructed to consume water and an electrolyte-enhanced carbohydrate electrolyte beverage to match sweat and sodium losses. Urine specific gravity, urine color, and percent body mass change characterized hydration status. Total fluid consumed during practice was assessed. RESULTS: INT consumed significantly more fluid than CON (1180.8 ± 579.0 ml vs. 788.6 ± 399.7 ml, = 0.002). However, CON participants replaced only 25.4 ± 12.9% of their fluid needs and INT 35.8 ± 17.5%. Mean percent body mass loss was not significantly different between groups and overall indicated minimal dehydration (

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

APA Citation

Emerson, D. M., Torres-McGehee, T. M., Emerson, C. C., & LaSalle, T. L. (2017). Individual fluid plans versus ad libitum on hydration status in minor professional ice hockey players. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1), 25–25.


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