https://doi.org/10.2147/ORR.S233387">
 

Document Type

Article

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D is paramount to bone health and little is known about vitamin D's role in the prevention of stress fractures in high-risk athletes. This study consists of a prospective, cross-sectional analysis accompanied by a retrospective review for control comparison of vitamin D3 supplementation in high-risk athletes. Our hypothesis is that supplemental vitamin D3 treatment will decrease the occurrence of stress fractures in high-risk collegiate athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 118 NCAA Division I athletes were recruited from 6 high-risk collegiate teams. Blood draws in August and February established baseline 25(OH)D levels. Subjects with serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL were supplemented with 50,000 IU of vitamin D3/week for 8 weeks. Treated subjects were re-tested to ensure serum 25(OH)D levels rose to sufficient status. All enrolled subjects were monitored for the development of stress fractures. A 5-year retrospective chart review of athletes from the same sports teams was conducted to determine the incidence of any reported stress fractures in the past. RESULTS: Prospective: 112 of the 118 enrolled subjects were tested in August. Sixty-one demonstrated vitamin D sufficiency (40.2 ng/mL ±8.28) and 51 were either insufficient or deficient (22.7 ng/mL ±4.89). Of the 118 enrolled subjects, 104 were tested in February. Fifty-six demonstrated vitamin D sufficiency (40.7 ng/mL ±9.47) and 48 were insufficient or deficient (21.6 ng/mL ±5.87). Two stress fractures were diagnosed amongst our cohort of 118 student athletes (1.69%). Retrospective: 34 stress fractures were diagnosed in 453 subjects from 01/2010-05/2015 (7.51%). Amongst our athletic teams, the cross-country team specifically demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in stress fracture incidence (p<0.05). We also found a statistically significant reduction in stress fracture incidence amongst the current overall cohort compared to our retrospective cohort (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: In our population, almost half of the tested athletes proved to be vitamin D deficient. Hypovitaminosis D was prevalent throughout the winter months compared with the summer. With vitamin D3 supplementation, the stress fracture rate in our overall cohort demonstrated a statistically significant decrease from 7.51% to 1.65% (p=0.009).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

https://doi.org/10.2147/ORR.S233387

APA Citation

Williams, K., Askew, C., Mazoue, C., Guy, J., Torres-McGehee, T. M., & Jackson Iii, J. B. (2020). Vitamin D3 supplementation and stress fractures in high-risk collegiate athletes - A pilot study. Orthopedic Research and Reviews, 12, 9–17. https://doi.org/10.2147/ORR.S233387

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© 2020 Williams et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php)

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