Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Humans; Female; Dancing; Diet; Risk Assessment; Calcium, Dietary; Nutrition Assessment


This study examined female collegiate ballet dancers' ( = 28) Female Athlete Triad (Triad) risk via the Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) and nutritional profiles (macro- and micronutrients; = 26). The CRA identified Triad return to play criteria (RTP: Full Clearance, Provisional Clearance, or Restricted/Medical Disqualified) by assessing eating disorder risk, low energy availability, menstrual cycle dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Seven-day dietary assessments identified any energy imbalances of macro- and micronutrients. Ballet dancers were identified as low, within normal, or high for each of the 19 nutrients assessed. Basic descriptive statistics assessed CRA risk classification and dietary macro- and micronutrient levels. Dancers averaged 3.5 ± 1.6 total score on the CRA. Based on these scores, the RTP outcomes revealed Full Clearance 7.1%, = 2; Provisional Clearance 82.1%, = 23; and Restricted/Medical Disqualification 10.7%, = 3. Dietary reports revealed that 96.2% ( = 25) of ballet dancers were low in carbohydrates, 92.3% ( = 24) low in protein, 19.2% ( = 5) low in fat percent, 19.2% ( = 5) exceeding saturated fats, 100% ( = 26) low in Vitamin D, and 96.2% ( = 25) low in calcium. Due to the variability in individual risks and nutrient requirements, a patient-centered approach is a critical part of early prevention, evaluation, intervention, and healthcare for the Triad and nutritional-based clinical evaluations.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

APA Citation

Moore, K., Uriegas, N. A., Pia, J., Emerson, D. M., Pritchett, K., & Torres-McGehee, T. M. (2023). Examination of the cumulative risk assessment and nutritional profiles among college ballet dancers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(5), 4269.