Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Humans; Female; Dancing; Diet; Risk Assessment; Calcium, Dietary; Nutrition Assessment


This study examined female collegiate ballet dancers' ( = 28) Female Athlete Triad (Triad) risk via the Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) and nutritional profiles (macro- and micronutrients; = 26). The CRA identified Triad return to play criteria (RTP: Full Clearance, Provisional Clearance, or Restricted/Medical Disqualified) by assessing eating disorder risk, low energy availability, menstrual cycle dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Seven-day dietary assessments identified any energy imbalances of macro- and micronutrients. Ballet dancers were identified as low, within normal, or high for each of the 19 nutrients assessed. Basic descriptive statistics assessed CRA risk classification and dietary macro- and micronutrient levels. Dancers averaged 3.5 ± 1.6 total score on the CRA. Based on these scores, the RTP outcomes revealed Full Clearance 7.1%, = 2; Provisional Clearance 82.1%, = 23; and Restricted/Medical Disqualification 10.7%, = 3. Dietary reports revealed that 96.2% ( = 25) of ballet dancers were low in carbohydrates, 92.3% ( = 24) low in protein, 19.2% ( = 5) low in fat percent, 19.2% ( = 5) exceeding saturated fats, 100% ( = 26) low in Vitamin D, and 96.2% ( = 25) low in calcium. Due to the variability in individual risks and nutrient requirements, a patient-centered approach is a critical part of early prevention, evaluation, intervention, and healthcare for the Triad and nutritional-based clinical evaluations.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

APA Citation

Moore, K., Uriegas, N. A., Pia, J., Emerson, D. M., Pritchett, K., & Torres-McGehee, T. M. (2023). Examination of the cumulative risk assessment and nutritional profiles among college ballet dancers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(5), 4269.


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