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The purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood social deprivation and individual-level characteristics on breast cancer staging in African American and white breast cancer patients. We established a retrospective cohort of patients with breast cancer diagnosed from 1996 to 2015 using the South Carolina Central Cancer Registry. We abstracted sociodemographic and clinical variables from the registry and linked these data to a county-level composite that captured neighborhood social conditions—the social deprivation index (SDI). Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, Student’s t-test, and multivariable ordinal regression analysis to evaluate associations. The study sample included 52,803 female patients with breast cancer. Results from the multivariable ordinal regression model demonstrate that higher SDI (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.10), African American race (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.29–1.41), and being unmarried (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.13–1.22) were associated with a distant stage at diagnosis. Higher tumor grade, younger age, and more recent year of diagnosis were also associated with distant-stage diagnosis. As a proxy for neighborhood context, the SDI can be used by cancer registries and related population-based studies to identify geographic areas that could be prioritized for cancer prevention and control efforts.

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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

APA Citation

Oluwole Adeyemi Babatunde, Zahnd, W. E., Eberth, J. M., Lawson, A. B., Swann Arp Adams, Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, Jefferson, M., Allen, C. G., Pearce, J. M., Li, H., & Chanita Hughes Halbert. (2021). Association between Neighborhood Social Deprivation and Stage at Diagnosis among Breast Cancer Patients in South Carolina. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(22), 11824–11824.