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Background Higher levels of time spent sitting (sedentary behavior) contribute to adverse health outcomes, including earlier death. This effect may be modified by other lifestyle factors. We examined the association of television viewing (TV), a common leisure-time sedentary behavior, with all-cause mortality, and whether this is modified by body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, soft drink consumption, or diet-associated inflammation. Methods Using data from participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, flexible parametric survival models assessed the time-dependent association of self-reported TV time (three categories: < 2 h/day, 2-3 h/day, > 3 h/day) with all-cause mortality. Interaction terms were fitted to test whether there was effect modification of TV time by the other risk factors. Results From 19,570 participants, 4,417 deaths were reported over a median follow up of 14.5 years. More TV time was associated with earlier mortality; however, this relationship diminished with increasing age. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for > 3 h/day compared with < 2 h/day of TV time was 1.34 (1.16, 1.55) at 70 years, 1.14 (1.04, 1.23) at 80 years, and 0.95 (0.84, 1.06) at 90 years. The TV time/mortality relationship was more evident in participants who were physically inactive (compared with active; p for interaction < 0.01) or had a higher dietary inflammatory index score (compared with a lower score; p for interaction = 0.03). No interactions were detected between TV time and BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, nor soft-drink consumption (all p for interaction > 0.16). Conclusions The relationship between TV time and all-cause mortality may change with age. It may also be more pronounced in those who are otherwise inactive or who have a pro-inflammatory diet.

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APA Citation

Swain, C. T. V., Bassett, J. K., Hodge, A. M., Dunstan, D. W., Owen, N., Yang, Y., Jayasekara, H., Hébert, J. R., Shivappa, N., MacInnis, R. J., Milne, R. L., English, D. R., & Lynch, B. M. (2022). Television viewing time and all-cause mortality: interactions with BMI, physical activity, smoking, and dietary factors. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 19.