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Insulin resistance (IR) and chronic low-grade inflammation are risk factors for chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate two dietary indices: Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and their associations with direct measures of glucose metabolism and adiposity, and biochemical measures including lipids, cytokines and adipokines in overweight/obese adults. This cross-sectional study included 65 participants (males = 63%; age 31.3 ± 8.5 years). Dietary intake via 3-day food diaries was used to measure adherence to MDS (0–45 points); higher scores indicating adherence. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were calculated with higher scores indicating a pro-inflammatory diet. IR was assessed using hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps, insulin secretion by intravenous glucose tolerance test, adiposity by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and circulating cytokine and adipokine concentrations by multiplex assays. Higher MDS was associated with greater insulin sensitivity (β = 0.179; 95%CI: 0.39, 0.318) after adjusting for age, sex and % body fat, and lower NF-κB, higher adiponectin and adipsin in unadjusted and adjusted models. Higher E-DII score was associated with increased total cholesterol (β = 0.364; 95%CI: 0.066, 0.390) and LDL-cholesterol (β = 0.305; 95%CI: 0.019, 0.287) but not with adiposity, glucose metabolism, cytokines or adipokines. Greater MDS appears to be associated with decreased IR and inflammatory markers in overweight/obese adults.

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APA Citation

Sood, S., Feehan, J., Itsiopoulos, C., Wilson, K., Plebanski, M., Scott, D., Hebert, J. R., Shivappa, N., Mousa, A., George, E. S., & Courten, B. de. (2022). Higher Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with Improved Insulin Sensitivity and Selected Markers of Inflammation in Individuals Who Are Overweight and Obese without Diabetes. Nutrients, 14(20), 4437.