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Background Diet and inflammation have both been studied in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and T2DM. Methods Subjects were adults enrolled in the baseline study of the Xinjiang multi-ethnic natural population cohort and health follow-up study from January to May 2019. The study involved 5,105 subjects (58.7% men) between 35 and 74 years of age. The DII score was calculated from a data obtained via a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 127 food items. Results Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of DII in relation to T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared to subjects in the 1st DII quintile, subjects in the 5th quintile (i.e., with the most pro-inflammatory diet) had higher odds of T2DM (OR = 3.27, 95%CI:2.38,4.50; p < 0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of T2DM in this population of Chinese adults.

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© 2021 Fu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

APA Citation

Fu, W., Pei, H., Shivappa, N., Hebert, J. R., Luo, T., Tian, T., Alimu, D., Zhang, Z., & Dai, J. (2021). Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region, China. PeerJ, 9, e11159.