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Background: The dietary inflammatory index (DII®), a quantitative measure of the inflammatory potential of daily food and nutrient intake, and associations between a variety of health outcomes have been reported. However, the association between DII score and disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to test whether higher DII score contributes to disease activity and as a corollary, y, whether reducing DII score helps to achieve or maintain low disease activity or remission in patients with RA.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using 6 years of data (from 2011 to 2017) in TOMORROW, a cohort study consisting of 208 RA patients and 205 gender- and age-matched controls started in 2010. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed annually using DAS28-ESR (disease activity score 28 joints and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate) as a composite measure based on arthritic symptoms in 28 joints plus global health assessment and ESR. Dietary data were collected in 2011 and 2017 using the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII™) score was calculated using 26 nutrients derived from the BDHQ. Data were analyzed with two-group comparisons, correlation analysis, and multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results: One hundred and seventy-seven RA patients and 183 controls, for whom clinical and dietary survey data were available, were analyzed. RA patients had significantly higher E-DII (pro-inflammatory) score compared to controls both in 2011 and 2017 (p < 0.05). In RA patients, E-DII score was not a factor associated with significant change in disease activity. However, anti-inflammatory change in E-DII score was associated maintaining low disease activity (DAS28-ESR ≤ 3.2) or less for 6 years (OR 3.46, 95% CI 0.33–8.98, p = 0.011).

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APA Citation

Matsumoto, Y., Shivappa, N., Sugioka, Y., Tada, M., Okano, T., Mamoto, K., Inui, K., Habu, D., Hebert, J. R., & Koike, T. (2021). Change in dietary inflammatory index score is associated with control of long-term rheumatoid arthritis disease activity in a Japanese cohort: The tomorrow study. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 23(1).