Document Type



Objective: To examine the association between household food insecurity (HFI), glycemic control, severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among youth and young adults (YYA) with youth-onset type 2 diabetes.

Research design and methods: This cross-sectional study included 395 YYA with type 2 diabetes from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (2015–2019). HFI was reported by young adult participants or parents of minor participants via the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Glycemic control was assessed by HbA1c and analyzed as a continuous and categorical variable (optimal:9.0%). Acute complications included self-reported severe hypoglycemia or DKA in the last 12 months. Adjusted logistic and linear regression were used for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively.

Results: Approximately 31% reported HFI in the past 12 months. Mean HbA1c among those with HFI was 9.2% compared to 9.5% without HFI. Of those with HFI, 56% had an HbA1c >9.0% compared to 55% without HFI. Adjusted models showed no associations between HFI and glycemic control. Of those with HFI, 14.4% reported experiencing DKA and 4.7% reported severe hypoglycemia. YYA with HFI had 3.08 times (95% CI: 1.18–8.06) the odds of experiencing DKA as those without HFI. There was no association between HFI and severe hypoglycemia.

Conclusions HFI was associated with markedly increased odds of DKA but not with glycemic control or severe hypoglycemia. Future research among YYA with type 2 diabetes should evaluate longitudinally whether alleviating HFI reduces DKA.

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APA Citation

Reid, L. A., Mendoza, J. A., Merchant, A. T., Geraci, M., Reboussin, B. A., Malik, F. S., Ellyson, A. M., Dabelea, D., Merjaneh, L., Marcovina, S. M., Lustigova, E., Lawrence, J. M., & Liese, A. D. (2022). Household food insecurity is associated with diabetic ketoacidosis but not severe hypoglycemia or glycemic control in youth and young adults with youth‐onset type 2 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 23(7), 982–990.