Background: Research indicates potential cardiometabolic benefits of energy consumption earlier in the day. This study examined the association between fasting duration, timing of first and last meals, and cardiometabolic endpoints using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods: Cross-sectional data from NHANES (2005–2016) were utilized. Diet was obtained from one to two 24-h dietary recalls to characterize nighttime fasting duration and timing of first and last meal. Blood samples were obtained for characterization of C-reactive protein (CRP); glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c %); insulin; glucose; and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol. Survey design procedures for adjusted linear and logistic regression were performed. Results: Every one-hour increase in nighttime fasting duration was associated with a significantly higher insulin and CRP, and lower HDL. Every one-hour increase in timing of the last meal of the day was statistically significantly associated with higher HbA1c and lower LDL. Every one-hour increase in first mealtime was associated with higher CRP (β = 0.044, p = 0.0106), insulin (β = 0.429, p < 0.01), and glucose (β = 0.662, p < 0.01), and lower HDL (β = −0.377, p < 0.01). Conclusion: In this large public health dataset, evidence for the beneficial effect of starting energy consumption earlier in the day on cardiometabolic endpoints was observed.
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Published in Nutrients, Volume 13, Issue 8, 2021, pages 2686-.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Wirth, M., Zhao, L., Turner-McGrievy, G., & Ortaglia, A. (2021). Associations between Fasting Duration, Timing of First and Last Meal, and Cardiometabolic Endpoints in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutrients, 13(8), 2686. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082686