Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Study
Previous studies have reported an association between a more pro-inflammatory diet profile and various chronic metabolic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was used to assess the inflammatory potential of nutrients and foods in the context of a dietary pattern. We prospectively examined the association between the DII and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD: myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study including 7216 high-risk participants. The DII was computed based on a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of CVD risk were computed across quartiles of the DII where the lowest (most anti-inflammatory) quartile is the referent. Risk increased across the quartiles (i.e., with increasing inflammatory potential): HRquartile2= 1.42 (95%CI = 0.97–2.09); HRquartile3= 1.85 (1.27–2.71); and HRquartile4= 1.73 (1.15–2.60). When fit as continuous the multiple-adjusted hazard ratio for each additional standard deviation of the DII was 1.22 (1.06–1.40). Our results provide direct prospective evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular clinical events.
Published in Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 6, 2015, pages 4124-4138.
© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Garcia-Arellano, A., Ramallal, R., Ruiz-Canela, M., Salas-Salvadó, J., Corella, D., & Shivappa, N. et al. (2015). Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Study. Nutrients, 7(6), 4124-4138. doi: 10.3390/nu7064124