Document Type


Subject Area(s)

Epidemiology & Biostatistics


Objective: To develop and test a quantitative, interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to ascertain nutrient intakes of individuals in northern India. Design: A 92-item FFQ was developed based on food use and market surveys of the study area. A validation study was conducted consisting of 24-h diet recalls (24HR) administered on 6 randomly selected days over 1 year. Two FFQs were administered, one each at the beginning and end of the 1-year period. FFQ and 24HR-derived nutrient scores were compared using correlation and regression analyses and by computing differences between nutrient intakes estimated by the two methods. Setting: Rural villages in Bhavnagar District, Gujarat, North India. Subjects: 60 individuals who agreed to provide all necessary data. Results: Pearson (parametric) correlation coefficients averaged 0.69 in comparing nutrient scores derived from the 24HR with those from the first FFQ and 0.72 in comparing the second FFQ (P < 0.0001). Spearman correlation coefficients were virtually identical to the Pearson correlations, averaging 0.68 and 0.72, respectively. In regression analyses, most coefficients were close to 1.0 (perfect linear association). Nutrient scores were significantly and consistently higher on both FFQs relative to the 24HR. Conclusions: This FFQ produces results broadly comparable, and superior in some respects, to those commonly used in the West. Higher than average measures of association indicate its suitability for comparing exposures within this study population in reference to health-related endpoints.

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