Carbon dots (CDs) are a new type of nanomaterials of the carbon family with unique characteristics, such as their small size (e.g., <10 nm), high water solubility, low toxicity, and high metal affinity. Modification of CDs by Nitrogen functional groups (N-CDs) enhances their metal adsorption capacity. This study investigated the influences of pH (4, 6, and 9), ionic strength (1, 50, and 100 mM), and cation valency (Na+ and Ca2+) on the competitive adsorption of Pb to quartz and N-CD surfaces, the transport and retention of N-CDs in saturated porous media, and the capacity of N-CDs to mobilize pre-adsorbed Pb in quartz columns. Pb adsorption was higher on N-CDs than on quartz surfaces and decreased with increases in ionic strength (IS) and divalent cations (Ca2+) concentration. N-CD mobility in quartz columns was highest at pH of 9- and 1-mM monovalent cations (Na+) and decreased with decreases in pH and increases in ionic strength and ion valency. N-CDs mobilized pre-adsorbed Pb from quartz due to the higher adsorption affinity of Pb to N-CD than to quartz surfaces. These findings provide valuable insights into the transport, retention, and risk assessment of lead in the presence of carbon-based engineered nanoparticles.
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Published in Molecules, Volume 25, Issue 23, 2020, pages 5518-.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Kamrani, S., Amiri, V., Kamrani, M., & Baalousha, M. (2020). Transport of N-CD and Pre-Sorbed Pb in Saturated Porous Media. Molecules, 25(23), 5518. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235518