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Metals being released into the environment are posing an increasing risk to both environments and public health. Developing improved approaches to remove these metals from the environment is urgent. A current publication discovered that metal bioremediation was significantly improved by nanoparticles (NPs), and the remediation duration was shortened. However, there is no relevant method for the preparation and evaluation of this novel idea. Hence, we developed this method for bacteria -EPS (Extracellular Polymeric Substances) cultivation, bacteria sub-cellular fractionation, and metal determinations in cultivating solution, EPS and different fractions of bacteria to evaluate metal removal by the combination of NPs and bacteria, including (1) the enhancement of metal bioremediation by NPs, (2) the influence of NPs on bacteria growth and metal toxicity alleviation, (3) the ability of EPS to adsorb metals and the influence of NPs on the EPS metal adsorption, (4) the contribution of bacteria to metal removal in different part, the effects of NPs on metal distribution patterns in bacteria, and the role of NPs in this process.•The design and experimental procedure for the evaluation of metal removal by combing bacteria and NPs.• EPS cultivation and separation in the study of bioremediation for metals.

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Cao, X., Xu, L., Decho, A., & Lead, J. (2021). A method for cultivation, fractionation, and metal determination to evaluate metal removal by the combination of NPs and bacteria. MethodsX, 8.


© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

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