Document Type



Although speech-language pathologists increasingly make use of tablets in clinical practice, little research to date has evaluated the effectiveness or efficiency of tablet use for targeting speech sound goals. The three-fold purpose of this study was to compare (a) the effectiveness and (b) the efficiency of speech sound intervention using tablets versus flashcards, as well as (c) child motivation in speech sound intervention when using tablets versus flashcards. Four kindergarten students with at least two similar speech sound errors participated in this adapted alternating treatments single subject design study that explored the functional relation between speech sound intervention that differed by modality of delivery (tablet versus flashcards) and increased speech sound skill in elementary school children with speech sound errors. Flashcards and tablets were both effective speech sound intervention modalities; however, for three of four participants, flashcards were more efficient than tablets. Motivation ratings did not differ across modalities.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

APA Citation

Werfel, K., Brooks, M., & Fitton, L. (2019). The Comparative Efficiency of Speech Sound Interventions That Differ by Delivery Modality: Flashcards Versus Tablet. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 42(1), 31-39.