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Universal conductance fluctuations in wires and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in loops are not symmetric about H=0. The observation of asymmetry in the periodic oscillations is possible when the phase-coherence length of the wave function is comparable to the separation of the voltage probes. In both cases, four-probe measurements yield resistances which depend on lead configuration. The asymmetries appear like Hall voltages, and are consistent with Onsager's relations.


Benoit, A. D., Washburn, S. Umbach, C. P., Laibowitz, R. B., & Webb, R. A. (1986). Asymmetry in the magnetoconductance of metal wires and loops. Physical Review Letters, 57(14), 1765-1768. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.57.1765

© Physical Review Letters, 1986, American Physical Society

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