Document Type



This review is a comprehensive summary of treatment options for pregnant patients with less common bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. It offers guidance to clinicians based on the most recently published evidence-based research and expert recommendations. A search of MEDLINE (inception to March 2021) and the CDC website was performed. Liposomal amphotericin B is the preferred therapy for cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, oesophageal candidiasis, and coccidioidomycosis, especially during the first trimester due to teratogenic concerns with azole antifungals. For oral candidiasis, clotrimazole troches or miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablets are recommended. A β-lactam antimicrobial is preferred over doxycycline for various manifestations of Lyme disease and the drug of choice for pneumonia is trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Acyclovir is the preferred antiviral for varicella zoster virus. Fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and aminoglycosides should be avoided if possible and there are alternate agents available for an effective treatment regimen. There is a scarcity of clinical data in pregnant patients with less common bacterial, fungal and viral infections. This population lacks definitive recommendations in many clinical practice guidelines. The key to optimizing therapy is a comprehensive review of the available evidence and a careful balance of risks and benefits before final treatment decisions.

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APA Citation

Gould, A. P., Winders, H. R., Stover, K. R., Bookstaver, P. B., Griffin, B., Bland, C. M., Eiland, L. S., & Murray, M. (2021). Less common bacterial, fungal and viral infections: Review of management in the pregnant patient. Drugs in Context, 10, 1–17.