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Pre-existing diabetes, hypertension and kidney disorders are prominent risk factors of pre-eclampsia (PE). It is a multifactorial pregnancy disorder associated with high blood pressure, proteinuria, and multiorgan failure, which develops after the 20th week of pregnancy. It is one of the most feared pregnancy disorders, as it consumes thousands of fetomaternal lives per annum. According to clinical and pathological studies, the placenta appears to be a key player in the pathogenesis of PE; however, the exact origin of this disorder is still under debate. Defective placentation and angiogenesis are the hallmarks of PE progression. This angiogenic imbalance, together with maternal susceptibility, might determine the severity and clinical presentation of PE. This article comprehensively examines the mechanisms of pathogenesis of PE and current evidence of the factors involved in its progression. Finally, this article will explore the genetic association of PE, various candidate genes, their proposed mechanisms and variants involved in its pathogenesis.

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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

APA Citation

Alanazi, A. S., Victor, F., Rehman, K., Khan, Y. H., Yunusa, I., Alzarea, A. I., Akash, M. S., & Mallhi, T. H. (2022). Pre-existing diabetes mellitus, hypertension and kidneydisease as risk factors of pre-eclampsia: A disease of theories and its association with genetic polymorphism. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(24), 16690.