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The cross-shore structure of subtidal flows on the inner shelf (7 to 12 m water depth) of Long Bay, South Carolina, a concave-shaped bay, is examined through the analysis of nearly 80 days of near-bed (1.7–2.2 m above bottom) current observations acquired during the spring and fall of 2001. In the spring and under northeastward winds (upwelling favorable) a two-layered flow was observed at depths greater than 10 m, while closer to the shore the currents were aligned with the wind. The two-layered flow is attributed to the presence of stratification, which has been observed under similar conditions in the South Atlantic Bight. When the wind stress was southwestward (downwelling favorable) and exceeded 0.1 N/m2, vertical mixing occurred, the two-layered flow pattern disappeared, and currents were directed alongshore with the wind at all sites and throughout the water column. In the fall, near-bed flows close to the shore (water depth <7 m) were often reduced compared to or opposed those measured farther offshore under southwestward winds. A simplified analysis of the depth-averaged, alongshore momentum balance illustrates that the alongshore pressure gradient approached or exceeded the magnitude of the alongshore wind stress at the same time that the nearshore alongshore current opposed the wind stress and alongshore currents farther offshore. In addition, the analysis suggests that the wind stress is reduced closer to shore so that the alongshore pressure gradient is large enough to drive the flow against the wind.


Gutierrez, B. T., Voulgaris, G., & Work, P. A. (2006). Cross-shore variation of wind-driven flows on the inner shelf in Long Bay, South Carolina, United States. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111 (C03015), 1-16.

© Journal of Geophysical Research 2006, American Geophysical Union