The Northwest (NW) Atlantic has experienced extreme ecological impacts from Marine Heatwaves (MHWs) within the past decade. This paper focuses on four MHW active years (2012, 2016, 2017, and 2020) and the relationship between Sea Surface Temperature anomalies (SSTA), Sea Surface Salinity anomalies (SSSA), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Geopotential Height anomalies (ZA), and anomalous Jet Stream positions (JSPA). Multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) reveals the strongest temporal covariances between SSSA and SSTA, and JSPA and SSTA for all years, particularly for 2020 (SSSA–SSTA: 50%, JSPA–SSTA: 51%) indicating that this active MHW year was more atmospherically driven, followed by 2012, which had the second highest temporal covariances (SSSA–SSTA: 47%, JSPA–SSTA: 50%) between these parameters. Spatial correlations for SSSA and SSTA between NAO during MHW active years disrupt the long–term (2010–2020) positive relationship in the NW Atlantic. SSSA and JSPA, and SSSA and SSTA were strongly correlated across the NW Atlantic; 2012 SSSA–JSPA correlations were strong and positive between 56–62°W, and 2016, 2017, and 2020 SSSA–JSPA correlations were mostly strong and negative, with strong positive correlations present near the coastline (70–66°W) or off the NW Atlantic shelf (52–48°W). SSSA–SSTA showed the opposite correlations of similar spatial distributions of SSSA–JSPA for all MHW active years. This indicates strong relationships between JSPA, SSSA, and SSTA during MHWs. Understanding the temporal and spatial interplay between these parameters will aid in better monitoring and prediction of MHWs.
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Published in Remote Sensing, Volume 14, Issue 12, 2022, pages 2913-.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Sims, L., Subrahmanyam, B., & Trott, C. (2022). Ocean–Atmosphere Variability in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean during Active Marine Heatwave Years. Remote Sensing, 14(12), 2913. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14122913