Shanghai, as one of the megacities and economic centers of China, is facing critical water quality challenges. This study analyzed the impact of urbanization on the water quality in Shanghai, from 2007 to 2015, using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Five measurements of water quality were employed: total discharged wastewater volume, general water quality levels, dissolved oxygen (DO), permanganate, and ammonia nitrogen. The impacts of urban land-use changes on water quality were examined. An urban index was extracted from satellite image classification and was used to quantify the anthropogenic activities. In the watershed level, unit watersheds were delineated from topography and stream segments. Results showed that the primary contributors of water quality degradation in Shanghai were DO and ammonia nitrogen. Both indicators expressed clear seasonal patterns that can be explained by agricultural activities and urbanization processes in Shanghai during the study period. Water quality was also regulated through water use policies. For example, the degraded water quality in suburban outskirts and improved water quality was achieved through the enforced wastewater discharge regulations in central Shanghai. Analytical findings provide spatially explicit information for governmental management on protecting water resources and controlling wastewater emissions, thus, improving the quality of living environments in this ever-growing megacity.
Published in Remote Sensing, Volume 10, Issue 7, 2018, pages 1-15.
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Li, H., Wang, C., Huang, X., & Hug, A. (2018). Spatial Assessment of Water Quality with Urbanization in 2007-2015, Shanghai, China. Remote Sensing, 10(7), 1024. doi:10.3390/rs10071024