Date of Award


Document Type

Campus Access Dissertation


Educational Leadership and Policies


Educational Administration

First Advisor

Zach Kelehear


The purpose of this study was to examine leadership practices that lead to improving academic achievement for African American males. Specifically, this study examined cultural insensitivity and its impact on educating African American male students in reading. The study utilized several techniques to determine what practices educators used to influence or enhance reading achievement among African American males. In addition, the study applied several strategies developed by Researcher Holly to test for cultural sensitivity. This research also implemented a mixed-method approach. The researcher conducted a case study using three principals. The researcher interviewed the principals as well as had them to complete the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) and a scholarly recognized checklist known as the 12 Essential Principles Checklist.

In addition, this study required the eighth grade English Language Arts teachers from each school to rate the principal's daily practices using rating scales referenced above. The researcher administered a descriptive analysis to evaluate the participant's responses from PIMRS and the 12 Essential Principles Checklist. This study's educational theory stems from Victor Vroom's Theory on motivation. Vroom's theory states that, "People are motivated by what they feel is obtainable and motivation begins with a desire that a goal can be achieved." Vroom's premise is also rooted in Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory that affirms that people learn from observation, imitation, and modeling and in so doing they are more likely to see themselves successful in future challenges. The findings suggest a relationship between a lack of appropriate educational resources for minority children and the achievement scores of African American males. The findings also indicate that the school that employed the highest percentage of diversity practices also had the highest standardized score on (PACT). Therefore, the results of this study may suggest that implementing diversity practices is related to increased student achievement as measured on standardized tests.