Date of Award

Spring 2023

Document Type

Open Access Dissertation


Educational Studies

First Advisor

Lucas Lima de Vasconcelos


Nation-wide, the number of English Language Learners (ELL) in our classrooms continues to increase. Twenty percent of students enrolled in California public schools are ELLs, the highest percentage in the nation. With the continuously growing number of ELLs in our classrooms, our mainstream teachers must be prepared to teach content and meet the unique linguistic needs of these students. At Sotomayor Elementary School in the Central Valley of California, 38% of the students enrolled are ELLs. Despite high numbers of ELLs, the district sees minimal evidence of intentional planning for Designated English Language Development (D-ELD), or instruction specifically targeted to students’ language needs, to support their language development. This qualitative action research case study examined the extent to which instructional coaching and workshops on TPACK affect in-service elementary teachers' instructional planning with technology integration in D-ELD at a Central Valley in California. This study examined the experiences of in-service elementary teachers in planning and teaching D-ELD after participating in instructional coaching and workshops on TPACK. As such, the study answered the following questions: (1) How do in-service elementary teachers integrate technology in D-ELD lesson planning before and after attending instructional coaching and workshops on TPACK? (2) How do in-service elementary teachers integrate technology into D-ELD before and after attending instructional coaching and workshops on TPACK? and (3) What are teachers’ perceptions of professional development using the TPACK framework?

This action research qualitative case study followed three in-service elementary teachers at Sotomayor Elementary School as they participated in job-embedded professional development to increase teachers’ ability to plan for D-ELD enhanced with technology. As part of the study, teachers participated in five workshops utilizing the TPACK framework to guide their instructional design. Simultaneously, participants received weekly one-on-one coaching as they planned for D-ELD instruction. Data were collected through multiple means to answer the research questions, including teacher interviews, planning think-alouds, observations of D-ELD lessons, and lesson plans.

An inductive and thematic analysis was conducted. The study found that as a result of participating in professional development, the participants gained greater confidence in planning for technology-enhanced D-ELD. There was a shift from teacher-centered to student-centered use of technology. Additionally, findings showed that professional development is most effective when it addresses a specific classroom need.


© 2023, Rachel Theresa Lopez