Date of Award

Spring 2023

Document Type

Open Access Dissertation


Educational Studies

First Advisor

Lucas Lima de Vasconcelos


National and state data show students in poverty perform lower on math standardized assessments than their peers who are not students in poverty. The purpose of this action research was to evaluate the implementation of the flipped classroom model on the achievement and motivation towards mathematics for fourth-grade students at an elementary school in the Southeast United States. Traditional teaching methods such as teacher-led modeling, the use of manipulatives, and small-group math instruction present barriers which have not led to overall academic improvement for these students. This study focused on three overarching questions: (1) Is there a difference in fourth-grade students’ achievement scores in geometry before and after attending a flipped classroom model? (2) What is fourth-grade students’ motivation toward math after attending a flipped classroom model? (3) What are fourth-grade students’ perceptions of the flipped classroom model?

This study used a triangulation mixed methods design with 17 fourth-grade students learning a geometry unit. The students participated in the flipped classroom model for eight weeks. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using a geometry pretest and posttest, a motivation questionnaire, a perception questionnaire, and focused group interviews. Qualitative data in this study were analyzed using inductive and thematic analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed using paired samples t-tests and descriptive statistics.

Quantitative findings from the study show there was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores on the geometry test after using the flipped classroom model. Qualitative data analyses led to the development of four themes: Using the flipped classroom model positively affected the four components of the ARCS model of motivation; The students used strategies that supported independent learning, engagement, and concept development; Students identified perceived benefits of using the flipped classroom model; and Students did not prefer the flipped classroom model of learning math.


© 2023, Kimberly M. Smalls