Date of Award

Spring 2020

Document Type

Open Access Thesis


Epidemiology and Biostatistics

First Advisor

Matthew Lohman


Using cross-sectional data from the 2009-2010 and 2013-2014 NHANES surveys we examined potential interaction between caffeine consumption, alcohol use, and sleep and its relation to bone health, measured using bone mineral density (BMD). The study population consisted of 2,405 individuals at least 40 years old who were not taking any medications or hormones that would affect bone mineral density. Several factors such as smoking status, exercise, dietary intake of calcium, dietary intake of vitamin D, dietary intake of phosphorus, presence of arthritis, age, gender and race were considered in this project. We found a statistically significant negative linear relationships between femur BMD and caffeine consumption and a statistically significant positive linear relationship between the estimated risk of major osteoporotic fracture and caffeine consumption for both those who did and did not have a previous fracture. We found no evidence of interaction between caffeine, alcohol, and sleep in regard to bone health.


© 2020, Haley Davis-Martin