Huiyun Liang

Date of Award

Spring 2019

Document Type

Open Access Dissertation



First Advisor

Scott Price

Second Advisor

Sara Ernst


The primary purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of video modeling with video feedback for developing mid-to-late elementary piano students’ motor skills in learning the piece “Polka” by Dmitri Kabalevsky. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the benefits of this method for other aspects of performance and performance retention. Five (N=5) piano students, 8 to 9 years old, at mid-to-late elementary level were selected to participate in this study. The results of the study summarized the performance progress of four participants who demonstrated similar levels of technical and reading skills and completed the test requirements.

The full-scale research was carried out in five weeks, including three weekly lessons and two post-tests on the fourth and fifth week respectively. Video modeling was integrated during the lessons by using expert-modeling, self-modeling, and the comparison of the two models. A motion analysis application was used to provide instant video feedback. In addition, video materials were provided for home practice, which included expert-modeling and feedback videos of self-modeling. Each participant’s performance in playing “Polka” hands separately and hands together was tracked by multiple tests during the lessons and two post-tests.

The results of the study showed that incorporating video modeling during the piano lessons effectively improved all targeted motor skills in various levels across participants. Video modeling during the lessons proved to be more effective on the targeted motor skills in one hand than both hands together. The benefits of video vii modeling seen in targeted motor skills are also positively reflected in their overall scores in other aspects of performance; however, the improvements in each category of the other aspects, including pitch/rhythm accuracy, balance, dynamics, and artistry, were inconsistent across participants.

The video materials for home practice showed general positive impacts on the targeted performance. Video materials for the hands-together performance during the third week of practice were more beneficial than for single-hand performance during the second week of practice. The final post-test result showed that all participants continuously improved the hands-together performance one week after removing the video materials from the fourth week of practice.