Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Dissertation


Educational Studies


College of Education

First Advisor

Dodie Limberg


Using a multiple baseline single case research design, the present study sought to measure the effects of a mindfulness intervention on counselors’-in-training facilitative dispositions of: (a) empathetic understanding, (b) level of regard, (c) unconditionality of regard, and (d) congruence (as observed through weekly in-session engagement with clients), and client outcomes (as measured by the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II; [Robitschek et al., 2012] and the Outcomes Questionnaire-45.2; [Lambert et al., 1996]). In addition, the investigation examined the influence of counselors-in-training participation in a brief mindfulness intervention on clients’ perception of the strength of the therapeutic alliance (as measured by the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory Form OS-40; [Barrett-Lennard, 1962, 2015]). More specifically, this study analyzed the effect of mindfulness education and engagement in mindfulness activities on the in-session occurrences of counselor-in-training expressions of additive empathetic understanding, subtractive empathetic understanding, positive regard, negative regard, the unconditionality of their regard, congruence, and incongruence, as well as the effect of counselor-in-training engagement in mindfulness education and mindfulness activities on client outcomes. The results support mindfulness as effective in increasing the dispositions of additive empathy and positive regard, while also demonstrating effectiveness in enhancing client outcomes. A discussion of the study procedures, results, limitations, and implications are provided.


© 2018, Therese Louise Newton