Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Dissertation


Educational Studies

First Advisor

Kellah Edens


This study sought to examine verbal redundancy in multimedia learning and its effects on memory retention and transfer in legal professionals who were randomly assigned to watch one of three multimedia videos. Tests of ANOVA showed no significant differences in performance, mental load, or combined efficiency scores among the three instructional groups, but participants in the complementary text group rated the video with complementary slides as significantly more helpful than the videos with redundant, overloaded text slides and spoken words only. Factorial ANOVA also revealed that the redundant text group with fewer than five years of experience scored significantly lower than other groups. The cognitive load of the learners was discussed and recommendations included assessing the prior knowledge of learners, reducing extraneous and redundant text, and including relevant graphics with words.


© 2015, Angela Mizell Dooley