Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Dissertation


School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management

First Advisor

David Cardenas


Historically and culturally, women’s leisure has been constrained through time, activity, and experience, as it is intricately woven with elements of freedom and choice, and thus empowerment (Khan, 2011; Henderson, et al., 1989). Previous research of constraints in leisure tourism appears to follow a pattern of inequalities between men and women (Wearing & Wearing, 1988). Women are feeling more independent and selfconfident then ever before in their leisure time and travel (Wilson & Harris, 2006). The purpose of this study is to determine if previous research, statistics, and case studies are still relevant in Millennial females and their solo leisure travels.

The use of qualitative methodology was implemented to analyze whether or not women are still facing the same constraints while traveling as Baby Boomer women had. The data collection consisted of 12 interviews with tourism scholars and 2 focus groups. Results from this study were consistent with previous literature done on this topic. However, the impact with which constraints or benefits has on female solo travelers differentiate between the Baby Boomer and Millennial generation. This topic should further be researched in order to determine the influence that benefits and constraints have on the contemporary female traveler.