Document Type



In this paper, a novel method to quantify the incubation of damage on piezoelectric crystal is presented. An intrinsic length scale parameter obtained from nonlocal field theory is used as a novel measure for quantification of damage precursor. Features such as amplitude decay, attenuation, frequency shifts and higher harmonics of guided waves are commonly-used damage features. Quantification of the precursors to damage by considering the mentioned features in a single framework is a difficult proposition. Therefore, a nonlocal field theory is formulated and a nonlocal damage index is proposed. The underlying idea of the paper is that inception of the damage at the micro scale manifests the evolution of damage at the macro scale. In this paper, we proposed a nonlocal field theory, which can efficiently quantify the inception of damage on piezoelectric crystals. The strength of the method is demonstrated by employing the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and longitudinal bulk waves in Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal. A control damage was introduced and its manifestation was expressed using the intrinsic dominant length scale. The SAWs were excited and detected using interdigital transducers (IDT) for healthy and damage state. The acoustic imaging of microscale damage in piezoelectric crystal was conducted using scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). The intrinsic damage state was then quantified by overlaying changes in time of flight (TOF) and frequency shift on the angular dispersion relationship.